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The Milky Way is a barred spiral galaxy with an estimated visible diameter of 1. The stars in the innermost 10, light-years form a bulge and one or more bars that radiate from the bulge.
Stars and gases at a wide range of distances from the Galactic Center orbit at approximately kilometers per second. This conjectural mass has been termed " dark matter ".
The oldest stars in the Milky Way are nearly as old as the Universe itself and thus probably formed shortly after the Dark Ages of the Big Bang.
The Milky Way has several satellite galaxies and is part of the Local Group of galaxies, which form part of the Virgo Supercluster , which is itself a component of the Laniakea Supercluster.
Brighter regions around the band appear as soft visual patches known as star clouds. The most conspicuous of these is the Large Sagittarius Star Cloud , a portion of the central bulge of the galaxy.
The area of sky that the Milky Way obscures is called the Zone of Avoidance. The Milky Way has a relatively low surface brightness. Its visibility can be greatly reduced by background light, such as light pollution or moonlight.
The sky needs to be darker than about As viewed from Earth, the visible region of the Milky Way's galactic plane occupies an area of the sky that includes 30 constellations.
From Sagittarius, the hazy band of white light appears to pass around to the galactic anticenter in Auriga. The band then continues the rest of the way around the sky, back to Sagittarius, dividing the sky into two roughly equal hemispheres.
Relative to the celestial equator , it passes as far north as the constellation of Cassiopeia and as far south as the constellation of Crux , indicating the high inclination of Earth's equatorial plane and the plane of the ecliptic, relative to the galactic plane.
Because of this high inclination, depending on the time of night and year, the arch of the Milky Way may appear relatively low or relatively high in the sky.
Estimates of the mass of the Milky Way vary, depending upon the method and data used. The low end of the estimate range is 5.
Much of the mass of the Milky Way seems to be dark matter , an unknown and invisible form of matter that interacts gravitationally with ordinary matter.
A dark matter halo is conjectured to spread out relatively uniformly to a distance beyond one hundred kiloparsecs kpc from the Galactic Center.
Mathematical models of the Milky Way suggest that the mass of dark matter is 1—1. In March , astronomers reported that the mass of the Milky Way galaxy is 1.
As a comparison, the neighboring Andromeda Galaxy contains an estimated one trillion 10 12 stars. This disk has at least a comparable extent in radius to the stars,  whereas the thickness of the gas layer ranges from hundreds of light-years for the colder gas to thousands of light-years for warmer gas.
The disk of stars in the Milky Way does not have a sharp edge beyond which there are no stars. Rather, the concentration of stars decreases with distance from the center of the Milky Way.
For reasons that are not understood, beyond a radius of roughly 40, ly 13 kpc from the center, the number of stars per cubic parsec drops much faster with radius.
Hence, such objects would probably be ejected from the vicinity of the Milky Way. Both gravitational microlensing and planetary transit observations indicate that there may be at least as many planets bound to stars as there are stars in the Milky Way,   and microlensing measurements indicate that there are more rogue planets not bound to host stars than there are stars.
The Milky Way consists of a bar-shaped core region surrounded by a warped disk of gas, dust and stars.
A galactic quadrant, or quadrant of the Milky Way, refers to one of four circular sectors in the division of the Milky Way. In astronomical practice, the delineation of the galactic quadrants is based upon the galactic coordinate system , which places the Sun as the origin of the mapping system.
This value is estimated using geometric -based methods or by measuring selected astronomical objects that serve as standard candles , with different techniques yielding various values within this approximate range.
Viewed from the Andromeda Galaxy, it would be the brightest feature of the Milky Way. In , two gigantic spherical bubbles of high energy emission were detected to the north and the south of the Milky Way core, using data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
The diameter of each of the bubbles is about 25, light-years 7. Outside the gravitational influence of the Galactic bar, the structure of the interstellar medium and stars in the disk of the Milky Way is organized into four spiral arms.
The Milky Way's spiral structure is uncertain, and there is currently no consensus on the nature of the Milky Way's spiral arms. Two spiral arms, the Scutum—Centaurus arm and the Carina—Sagittarius arm, have tangent points inside the Sun's orbit about the center of the Milky Way.
If these arms contain an overdensity of stars compared to the average density of stars in the Galactic disk, it would be detectable by counting the stars near the tangent point.
The rest of the arms contain excess gas but not excess old stars. The explanation for this apparent discrepancy is unclear.
The Near 3 kpc Arm also called Expanding 3 kpc Arm or simply 3 kpc Arm was discovered in the s by astronomer van Woerden and collaborators through centimeter radio measurements of HI atomic hydrogen.
It is located in the fourth galactic quadrant at a distance of about 5. It is located in the first galactic quadrant at a distance of 3 kpc about 10, ly from the Galactic Center.
A simulation published in suggested that the Milky Way may have obtained its spiral arm structure as a result of repeated collisions with the Sagittarius Dwarf Elliptical Galaxy.
It has been suggested that the Milky Way contains two different spiral patterns: an inner one, formed by the Sagittarius arm, that rotates fast and an outer one, formed by the Carina and Perseus arms, whose rotation velocity is slower and whose arms are tightly wound.
In this scenario, suggested by numerical simulations of the dynamics of the different spiral arms, the outer pattern would form an outer pseudoring ,  and the two patterns would be connected by the Cygnus arm.
Outside of the major spiral arms is the Monoceros Ring or Outer Ring , a ring of gas and stars torn from other galaxies billions of years ago.
However, several members of the scientific community recently restated their position affirming the Monoceros structure is nothing more than an over-density produced by the flared and warped thick disk of the Milky Way.
Although the disk contains dust that obscures the view in some wavelengths, the halo component does not. Active star formation takes place in the disk especially in the spiral arms, which represent areas of high density , but does not take place in the halo, as there is little cool gas to collapse into stars.
Discoveries in the early 21st century have added dimension to the knowledge of the Milky Way's structure. With the discovery that the disk of the Andromeda Galaxy M31 extends much farther than previously thought,  the possibility of the disk of the Milky Way extending farther is apparent, and this is supported by evidence from the discovery of the Outer Arm extension of the Cygnus Arm   and of a similar extension of the Scutum—Centaurus Arm.
Similarly, with the discovery of the Canis Major Dwarf Galaxy , it was found that a ring of galactic debris from its interaction with the Milky Way encircles the Galactic disk.
The Sloan Digital Sky Survey of the northern sky shows a huge and diffuse structure spread out across an area around 5, times the size of a full moon within the Milky Way that does not seem to fit within current models.
The collection of stars rises close to perpendicular to the plane of the spiral arms of the Milky Way.
The proposed likely interpretation is that a dwarf galaxy is merging with the Milky Way. In addition to the stellar halo, the Chandra X-ray Observatory , XMM-Newton , and Suzaku have provided evidence that there is a gaseous halo with a large amount of hot gas.
The halo extends for hundreds of thousand of light-years, much farther than the stellar halo and close to the distance of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds.
The mass of this hot halo is nearly equivalent to the mass of the Milky Way itself. Observations of distant galaxies indicate that the Universe had about one-sixth as much baryonic ordinary matter as dark matter when it was just a few billion years old.
However, only about half of those baryons are accounted for in the modern Universe based on observations of nearby galaxies like the Milky Way.
Boehle and associates found a smaller value of There are about stars brighter than absolute magnitude 8. This illustrates the fact that there are far more faint stars than bright stars: in the entire sky, there are about stars brighter than apparent magnitude 4 but The apex of the Sun's way, or the solar apex , is the direction that the Sun travels through space in the Milky Way.
The general direction of the Sun's Galactic motion is towards the star Vega near the constellation of Hercules , at an angle of roughly 60 sky degrees to the direction of the Galactic Center.
The Sun's orbit about the Milky Way is expected to be roughly elliptical with the addition of perturbations due to the Galactic spiral arms and non-uniform mass distributions.
In addition, the Sun passes through the Galactic plane approximately 2. These oscillations were until recently thought to coincide with mass lifeform extinction periods on Earth.
At this speed, it takes around 1, years for the Solar System to travel a distance of 1 light-year, or 8 days to travel 1 AU astronomical unit.
The stars and gas in the Milky Way rotate about its center differentially , meaning that the rotation period varies with location.
As is typical for spiral galaxies, the orbital speed of most stars in the Milky Way does not depend strongly on their distance from the center.
This is unlike the situation within the Solar System, where two-body gravitational dynamics dominate, and different orbits have significantly different velocities associated with them.
The rotation curve shown in the figure describes this rotation. Toward the center of the Milky Way the orbit speeds are too low, whereas beyond 7 kpcs the speeds are too high to match what would be expected from the universal law of gravitation.
If the Milky Way contained only the mass observed in stars, gas, and other baryonic ordinary matter, the rotation speed would decrease with distance from the center.
However, the observed curve is relatively flat, indicating that there is additional mass that cannot be detected directly with electromagnetic radiation.
This inconsistency is attributed to dark matter. Alternatively, a minority of astronomers propose that a modification of the law of gravity may explain the observed rotation curve.
The Milky Way began as one or several small overdensities in the mass distribution in the Universe shortly after the Big Bang.
Nearly half the matter in the Milky Way may have come from other distant galaxies. Within a few billion years of the birth of the first stars, the mass of the Milky Way was large enough so that it was spinning relatively quickly.
Due to conservation of angular momentum , this led the gaseous interstellar medium to collapse from a roughly spheroidal shape to a disk.
Therefore, later generations of stars formed in this spiral disk. Most younger stars, including the Sun, are observed to be in the disk.
Since the first stars began to form, the Milky Way has grown through both galaxy mergers particularly early in the Milky Way's growth and accretion of gas directly from the Galactic halo.
Direct accretion of gas is observed in high-velocity clouds like the Smith Cloud. This lack of recent major mergers is unusual among similar spiral galaxies; its neighbour the Andromeda Galaxy appears to have a more typical history shaped by more recent mergers with relatively large galaxies.
According to recent studies, the Milky Way as well as the Andromeda Galaxy lie in what in the galaxy color—magnitude diagram is known as the "green valley", a region populated by galaxies in transition from the "blue cloud" galaxies actively forming new stars to the "red sequence" galaxies that lack star formation.
Star-formation activity in green valley galaxies is slowing as they run out of star-forming gas in the interstellar medium. In simulated galaxies with similar properties, star formation will typically have been extinguished within about five billion years from now, even accounting for the expected, short-term increase in the rate of star formation due to the collision between both the Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy.
Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Milky Way, which thus set a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way.
The ages of individual stars in the Milky Way can be estimated by measuring the abundance of long-lived radioactive elements such as thorium and uranium , then comparing the results to estimates of their original abundance, a technique called nucleocosmochronology.
These yield values of about By measuring the temperatures of the coolest of these white dwarfs and comparing them to their expected initial temperature, an age estimate can be made.
With this technique, the age of the globular cluster M4 was estimated as Age estimates of the oldest of these clusters gives a best fit estimate of In November , astronomers reported the discovery of one of the oldest stars in the universe.
About The discovery of the star in the Milky Way galaxy suggests that the galaxy may be at least 3 billion years older than previously thought.
Several individual stars have been found in the Milky Way's halo with measured ages very close to the In , a star in the galactic halo, HE , was estimated to be about As the oldest known object in the Milky Way at that time, this measurement placed a lower limit on the age of the Milky Way.
The line strengths yield abundances of different elemental isotopes , from which an estimate of the age of the star can be derived using nucleocosmochronology.
According to observations utilizing adaptive optics to correct for Earth's atmospheric distortion, stars in the galaxy's bulge date to about The age of stars in the galactic thin disk has also been estimated using nucleocosmochronology.
Measurements of thin disk stars yield an estimate that the thin disk formed 8. These measurements suggest there was a hiatus of almost 5 billion years between the formation of the galactic halo and the thin disk.
The satellite galaxies surrounding the Milky way are not randomly distributed but seemed to be the result of a break-up of some larger system producing a ring structure , light-years in diameter and 50, light-years wide.
The Milky Way and the Andromeda Galaxy are a binary system of giant spiral galaxies belonging to a group of 50 closely bound galaxies known as the Local Group , surrounded by a Local Void, itself being part of the Virgo Supercluster.
Surrounding the Virgo Supercluster are a number of voids, devoid of many galaxies, the Microscopium Void to the "north", the Sculptor Void to the "left", the Bootes Void to the "right" and the Canes-Major Void to the South.
These voids change shape over time, creating filamentous structures of galaxies. The Virgo Supercluster, for instance, is being drawn towards the Great Attractor ,  which in turn forms part of a greater structure, called Laniakea.
Two smaller galaxies and a number of dwarf galaxies in the Local Group orbit the Milky Way. The largest of these is the Large Magellanic Cloud with a diameter of 14, light-years.
It has a close companion, the Small Magellanic Cloud. The stream is thought to have been dragged from the Magellanic Clouds in tidal interactions with the Milky Way.
The smallest dwarf galaxies of the Milky Way are only light-years in diameter. There may still be undetected dwarf galaxies that are dynamically bound to the Milky Way, which is supported by the detection of nine new satellites of the Milky Way in a relatively small patch of the night sky in In researchers reported that most satellite galaxies of the Milky Way lie in a very large disk and orbit in the same direction.
This discrepancy is still not fully explained. In January , researchers reported that the heretofore unexplained warp in the disk of the Milky Way has now been mapped and found to be a ripple or vibration set up by the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds as they orbit the Milky Way, causing vibrations when they pass through its edges.
However, in a computer model, the movement of these two galaxies creates a dark matter wake that amplifies their influence on the larger Milky Way.
In 3 to 4 billion years, there may be an Andromeda—Milky Way collision , depending on the importance of unknown lateral components to the galaxies' relative motion.
If they collide, the chance of individual stars colliding with each other is extremely low, but instead the two galaxies will merge to form a single elliptical galaxy or perhaps a large disk galaxy  over the course of about a billion years.
Although special relativity states that there is no "preferred" inertial frame of reference in space with which to compare the Milky Way, the Milky Way does have a velocity with respect to cosmological frames of reference.
One such frame of reference is the Hubble flow , the apparent motions of galaxy clusters due to the expansion of space. Individual galaxies, including the Milky Way, have peculiar velocities relative to the average flow.
Thus, to compare the Milky Way to the Hubble flow, one must consider a volume large enough so that the expansion of the Universe dominates over local, random motions.
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This thermal radio radiation enables astronomers to map the distribution of H II regions in distant parts of the Galaxy.
The largest and brightest H II regions in the Galaxy rival the brightest star clusters in total luminosity. Even though most of the visible radiation is concentrated in a few discrete emission lines, the total apparent brightness of the brightest is the equivalent of tens of thousands of solar luminosities.
These H II regions are also remarkable in size, having diameters of about 1, light-years. They contain gas that has a total mass ranging from one or two solar masses up to several thousand.
H II regions consist primarily of hydrogen, but they also contain measurable amounts of other gases.
Helium is second in abundance, and large amounts of carbon , nitrogen , and oxygen occur as well. Preliminary evidence indicates that the ratio of the abundance of the heavier elements among the detected gases to hydrogen decreases outward from the centre of the Galaxy, a tendency that has been observed in other spiral galaxies.
The gaseous clouds known as planetary nebulae are only superficially similar to other types of nebulae. So called because the smaller varieties almost resemble planetary disks when viewed through a telescope, planetary nebulae represent a stage at the end of the stellar life cycle rather than one at the beginning.
The distribution of such nebulae in the Galaxy is different from that of H II regions. Planetary nebulae belong to an intermediate population and are found throughout the disk and the inner halo.
There are more than 1, known planetary nebulae in the Galaxy, but more might be overlooked because of obscuration in the Milky Way region. Another type of nebulous object found in the Galaxy is the remnant of the gas blown out from an exploding star that forms a supernova.
Occasionally these objects look something like planetary nebulae, as in the case of the Crab Nebula , but they differ from the latter in three ways: 1 the total mass of their gas they involve a larger mass, essentially all the mass of the exploding star , 2 their kinematics they are expanding with higher velocities , and 3 their lifetimes they last for a shorter time as visible nebulae.
These objects and the many others like them in the Galaxy are detected at radio wavelengths. They release radio energy in a nearly flat spectrum because of the emission of radiation by charged particles moving spirally at nearly the speed of light in a magnetic field enmeshed in the gaseous remnant.
Radiation generated in this way is called synchrotron radiation and is associated with various types of violent cosmic phenomena besides supernova remnants, as, for example, radio galaxies.
The dust clouds of the Galaxy are narrowly limited to the plane of the Milky Way, though very low-density dust can be detected even near the galactic poles.
Dust clouds beyond 2, to 3, light-years from the Sun cannot be detected optically, because intervening clouds of dust and the general dust layer obscure more distant views.
Based on the distribution of dust clouds in other galaxies, it can be concluded that they are often most conspicuous within the spiral arms, especially along the inner edge of well-defined ones.
The best-observed dust clouds near the Sun have masses of several hundred solar masses and sizes ranging from a maximum of about light-years to a fraction of a light-year.
The smallest tend to be the densest, possibly partly because of evolution: as a dust complex contracts, it also becomes denser and more opaque.
The very smallest dust clouds are the so-called Bok globules , named after the Dutch American astronomer Bart J. Bok ; these objects are about one light-year across and have masses of 1—20 solar masses.
More complete information on the dust in the Galaxy comes from infrared observations. While optical instruments can detect the dust when it obscures more distant objects or when it is illuminated by very nearby stars, infrared telescopes are able to register the long-wavelength radiation that the cool dust clouds themselves emit.
A complete survey of the sky at infrared wavelengths made during the early s by an unmanned orbiting observatory , the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS , revealed a large number of dense dust clouds in the Milky Way.
Twenty years later the Spitzer Space Telescope , with greater sensitivity, greater wavelength coverage, and better resolution, mapped many dust complexes in the Milky Way.
In some it was possible to view massive star clusters still in the process of formation. Thick clouds of dust in the Milky Way can be studied by still another means.
Many such objects contain detectable amounts of molecules that emit radio radiation at wavelengths that allow them to be identified and analyzed.
More than 50 different molecules, including carbon monoxide and formaldehyde , and radicals have been detected in dust clouds.
The stars in the Galaxy, especially along the Milky Way, reveal the presence of a general, all-pervasive interstellar medium by the way in which they gradually fade with distance.
This occurs primarily because of interstellar dust , which obscures and reddens starlight. On the average, stars near the Sun are dimmed by a factor of two for every 3, light-years.
Thus, a star that is 6, light-years away in the plane of the Galaxy will appear four times fainter than it would otherwise were it not for the interstellar dust.
Another way in which the effects of interstellar dust become apparent is through the polarization of background starlight. Dust is aligned in space to some extent, and this results in selective absorption such that there is a preferred plane of vibration for the light waves.
The electric vectors tend to lie preferentially along the galactic plane, though there are areas where the distribution is more complicated.
It is likely that the polarization arises because the dust grains are partially aligned by the galactic magnetic field. If the dust grains are paramagnetic so that they act somewhat like a magnet, then the general magnetic field, though very weak, can in time line up the grains with their short axes in the direction of the field.
As a consequence, the directions of polarization for stars in different parts of the sky make it possible to plot the direction of the magnetic field in the Milky Way.
The dust is accompanied by gas , which is thinly dispersed among the stars, filling the space between them. This interstellar gas consists mostly of hydrogen in its neutral form.
Radio telescopes can detect neutral hydrogen because it emits radiation at a wavelength of 21 cm. Such radio wavelength is long enough to penetrate interstellar dust and so can be detected from all parts of the Galaxy.
Most of what astronomers have learned about the large-scale structure and motions of the Galaxy has been derived from the radio waves of interstellar neutral hydrogen.
The distance to the gas detected is not easily determined. Statistical arguments must be used in many cases, but the velocities of the gas, when compared with the velocities found for stars and those anticipated on the basis of the dynamics of the Galaxy, provide useful clues as to the location of the different sources of hydrogen radio emission.
Gallagher, III Galaxies in the Universe: An Introduction. Cambridge University Press. M Fairfax Public Access Corporation.
The Astrophysical Journal 1 : — T; Girardi L. Acta A. An introduction to galaxies and cosmology. Origin and evolution of massive black holes in galactic nuclei.
Boston University. Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Archived from the original PDF on July 20, Categories : Spiral galaxies Local galaxies Milky Way.
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